Diabetes Management


Diabetes is a disease that occurs when the blood sugar or blood glucose in your body is very high. Having too much glucose in your blood can cause health problems. It leads to other health complications like heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, eye problems, dental disease, nerve damage, and foot problems. The most common types of diabetes are:

  • Type 1 diabetes: In this type of diabetes, pancreatic cells are destroyed and cannot make insulin. People with this diabetes need to take insulin every day to stay alive. It is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, although it can appear at any age.
  • Type 2 diabetes: This is the most common type of diabetes. In this type, the body does not make or use insulin well. It is most often seen in middle-aged and older people.
  • Gestational diabetes: This type of diabetes develops in some women when they are pregnant.

Risk Factors for Diabetes Include:

  • Overweight, physically inactive or have a sedentary lifestyle
  • Family history of diabetes
  • High stored fat in abdomen by body
  • Race: higher in Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, and Asian Americans
  • Age: high in person after the age of 45, prediabetes-blood sugar level is already higher than normal (but not enough to classify as diabetes).

How to manage diabetes: ABCs of Diabetes

for A1C test: The A1C test shows you what your blood sugar has been over the last three months. High blood sugar levels can harm your heart, blood vessels, kidneys, and eyes.

for Blood Pressure: High blood pressure makes your heart work too hard. It can cause heart attack, stroke, and kidney disease.


for Cholesterol: One kind of cholesterol called LDL, can build up and clog your blood vessels. It can cause heart attack and stroke.


for Stop Smoking: Ask for help to quit smoking.

American Diabetes Association recommendations for monitoring blood sugar

Monitoring Parameters Recommended Ranges When to Check
Fasting Blood Glucose 80-130 mg/dL 8 hours without food
Post Meal Blood Glucose 180 mg/dL < 2 hours after eating
A1C Goal – Most Adults < 7% 3 months is uncontrolled 6 months if at goal
A1C Goal – Less Strict < 8% R3 months if uncontrolled 6 months if at goal